HISTORICAL REVIEW AND DEFINITIONS 4.1.-GROUP DYNAMICS. The first hypothesis and analysis on collective phenomena, structures and transformations, found in the Republic of Plato and Aristotle’s politics. The study of groups and human relations, has acquired an experimentalist and positive character at beginning of the twentieth century. It should recognize that the psychology and sociology of groups have been boosted by the large European precursors to the human sciences. Among these can be mentioned: Emilio Durkheim, initiator of the Social dynamics that contributed to interpretations of the collective processes at all scales; Freud, creator of psychoanalysis who revolutionizes the society with their approaches about neurosis and psychotherapy. Subsequently, Kurt Lewin in 1944 created the term group dynamics and promotes research to current It takes its name (LEWINIANA).
Main currents of this area of Social Psychology research, include the following: 1.-La LEWINIANA or DINAMISTA. 2. The INTERACTIONIST. 3. The PSYCHOANALYST. 4. The HUMANIST.
The first one takes much consideration persons as to the psychological environment. The group is called to resolve their tensions and conflicts and to establish a more or less stable equilibrium. Group processes and phenomena are the subject of practical theoretical analysis. The second current (INTERACTIONIST), is based on the systematic observation of the immediate data of processes that interact between individuals. Its highest representative is ROBERT BALES. The psychoanalyst power characterized by the decisive influence of the concepts and models of Sigmond Freud. The main representatives of this current are: Bion, Balint and Jacques. The humanistic current conceived the human being as a whole (holistically), and in constant interaction with their environment. It is the integration of various theories or approaches, where the center of this completeness is the man himself. This is a current integrative and eclectic, since it uses theoretical concepts and practical procedures, to the extent that may be required.