Lighting in Homes

High level of security guaranteed low-voltage and low heat, and when you need high speed (for example, to stop signals), then there LEDs become indispensable because of their snap. Others will not Equally important are the advantages and built-subminiature light distribution. Lights based on LEDs are light, compact, flat and very easy to install and operate. Clearly that, as each fixture, the led has its drawbacks. They are due to the fact that a number of manufacturers, using a surge in popularity of led light sources, produce to the market "damp", not to Modified end products. Such LEDs have a problem with color, they are not clearly predicted service life. But, despite all the shortcomings, the introduction of LEDs, according to Russian scientists, is one of the most promising areas in the coverage. Developments in this direction within the state programs conducted by scientists from the United States, Japan, Korea, China and Australia.

Part of the electrical energy consumed for lighting, is the world's approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed. led – is a device with high efficiency converts electrical energy into light. New light sources, LEDs will save electricity, estimated billions of dollars, and solve some environmental problems associated with global warming. Led offensive on the market Lighting began with light signaling devices based on the use of colored light. The many advantages of LEDs are particularly evident. For example, a lamp-based LEDs of red light emission consumes 100 times (!) less electricity and is 100 times (!) longer than providing a similar effect incandescent lamp with red filter. Traffic lights, road stopsignaly, overall and obstruction lights, navigation marks waterways – in these areas LEDs quickly grab the lead.

This is not surprising: in conventional incandescent traffic lights require annual replacement, and led devices are 5-10 years, while consuming 5-10 times less electricity. The idea of replacing incandescent lamps with led counterparts are no longer perceived as weird. Substitutes based LEDs designed for low-voltage "galogenok, and for the lamps with other standard socket. The process of replacing the quickest runs in a mobile "applications" (bicycle headlamps, flashlights, lamps for all sorts of work: mining lamps, lamps for railway workers, Light rescue officers and many others). ooo Prokopyevsky Plant Lighting is a leader in the manufacture of lighting fixtures and lamps for various industries: mining the new led lights generation SGG5m05, ngr 06-4-003, smgv 1A-003 for coal mining, railway lights fra 01.01, 03.01 fra, fra 02.01 for the needs of Railways (conductors cars, assistant station, yardmaster) lights FOS-2, FOS3-5 / 6, FOS3S-5 / 6 for rescue officers, employees of traffic police services, housing and utilities.

Radiators – Heat In The House

A rare happy owner of a private house, villas, cottages or apartments thinking about winter, the beautiful, warm, summer day. And when it's cold season and the battery barely warm to the touch and you have to wrap up in wool sweaters, constantly chasing electric heaters. In such cases, only the dream of a warm summer. Should I suffer? In order to keep warm in winter and make your house really warm – we need decisive action. Must adjust heating. You can start with changing the batteries obsolete goals, installation of modern heating. Such measures are relevant to residents of various cities: Ekaterinburg, Tyumen, Moscow, Vladivostok and others, any points in Russia. Where start, you ask? How to choose a reliable radiator? Radiator – is a device which circulates heated to a certain temperature heat transfer fluid (water or antifreeze).

Heatsink design provides efficient transfer of heat from the coolant in a heated room. Types of heaters by way of heat transfer in a heated room all the heaters are divided into three types: radiation, convection-radiation and convection. Radiation type heaters transfer heat by radiation (radiation). For example: ceiling radiators, sectional cast iron radiators, tubular radiators. Instruments convective-radiative type provide space heating by radiation and convection in about equal proportions. To this type belong sectional aluminum radiators, steel sectional radiators bimetallic heaters, tubular heaters, convectors. To the heater convective type up to 90% are such that the bulk of its heat into the surrounding space transfer by convection, ie Air Circulation bottom-up through a heated ribbed surface of the device.

Secondary Market

Due to the dynamics of the credit market there is precedent for removal of the car is in the mortgage and who succeeded to this point, several owners. In fact, the bona fide purchaser is collateral by the debtor on any of the previous owners. Than it threatens the usual buyers? How this situation could affect the secondary market cars? Try to understand … It's hard not to notice what the consequences for bona fide purchasers may have created a precedent, which has the formal characteristics of law. From now on, when the pledge of the vehicle is not registered anywhere and information about this can not be obtained, purchase of any car in the secondary market is extremely risky, since any of the previous owners could use the vehicle as collateral.

Today legal and technical remedies used car buyer does not exist. This means that if you do not modify the current practice of mortgage vehicles, the secondary market of expensive cars greatly shaken, and with it likely to reduce size of the market of new cars, because in most cases the funds to buy new machines from the sale of second-hand. If you look at this situation on the other hand, we can see artless benefit dealers. After the purchase of machinery or by hand at the car becomes a lottery, most buyers will go to the company's reputation and guarantees. Thus, will thrive trade-in, increase sales of new and used cars through car dealers. Of course, we can assume that the cabin might try to sell 'unclean' car, but the legal support company certainly solve any problems. Since many of the security services have access to the credit histories of people and their personal business. The most interesting thing in this situation, the lender can legally find their funds in full volume from the last owner of the mortgaged vehicle, even if the owner knew of the existence of such a mortgage, and he in turn can refer only to the previous seller.

Little Big Income From Property

Can not having a great asset and using the opportunities now available to many, to get quite a decent income in real estate? Here is a case of real estate practice. Customers a realtor seemed attractive situation on the market of affordable housing in Krasnoyarsk in late 2005, early 2006. Prices for apartments in residential areas of the city (Cheryomushki, Energy) hardly grew during the preceding year and a half or two. At the same time in Moscow, the growth in home prices in new buildings only for the fourth quarter of 2005 was about 11%. Enhanced promotion at the state level of mortgage programs and increased competition in the mortgage market Lending between banks directly pointed to the future growth in demand for affordable housing in Krasnoyarsk, and hence the future price increases.

Clients do not have the means to purchase housing, and easy to use, although and quite risky time wanted. After thinking about and sorting through the options, decided to try to get a bank loan. Turned into one of the banks and were able to get a loan to purchase real estate at a fairly acceptable by today's conditions. Total family income client was not very big, about 20 000 per month, so the loan amount was also low – 410 000 rubles for 10 years, with monthly payments of $ 7500 rubles and the rate of 12% per annum. Originally hoped to acquire low-budget accommodation – Dormitory in the Cheryomushki or energy, price per square meter for such housing at that time (early 2006) was about 27000-28000 USD.

Home Mortgages

For all advertising fireworks home mortgages room as far from reality as a pre-election promises of Deputies. From the perspective of a normal person room – the same property, and does not differ from the apartment. In banking logic entirely different criteria. As there is a classic? "Mind the banker did not understand a common yardstick to measure is not" What should be a banker except for the portfolio, tie and expensive parties? He needs a quiet, calm. And in order to properly dripped into Potbelly. Invitation to a party banker razdobudete. Portfolio he has, and tie long gave your beloved wife.

Or a mistress. Does not matter – the interest in any event, we paid him. But peace and quiet? Credit for the apartment not banker promises no trouble. To pay him money or not – in the loser Bank will not remain. In the worst case, the apartment will go under the hammer to secure the debt. At best – we will pull the same mortgage yoke, and part, happy with each another. After all, flat as collateral, and the laws are good to defend the peace banker. Another thing the room.

Inherited from the Soviet era, the rooms are entered in the reality of capitalism with a very peculiar regulatory framework. Curve, as well, and all other Russian laws. The room can not be sold just like that. Laws for the rooms can compete for the title of the most divorced from life. Why bank zigzags social housing? Quarrel with the neighbors, and ZhEKi PIBy …

Mortgage Broker

Mortgage broker works directly with the credit manager. It often happens that they are personally familiar with, so the process of gathering information prior to some extent automated and simplified. Secondly, the customer saves time. He did not need, again, to call, go to the banks to spend precious time, time off from work, etc. Mortgage broker an agreement with the bank as a client to be comfortable. Thirdly, from the first two points imply that the customer saves money. As you know, nerves, and time = money. Fourth, suppose, because the client is cooperating with the mortgage broker, the bank gave a discount of 0,5% in the benchmark interest rate.

With a loan of 3 million rubles. For example, a 20-year perspective, this discount can save a client from 200 to 300 rubles (more calculated separately). Ie we again decided that the customer saves money. What mortgage brokers are mortgage brokers are different. They are conventionally divided into 3 types. 1) Firms, Legal persons engaged exclusively loans.

Any loans, including mortgages. 2) Real estate companies, which in itself has a staff of experts on the mortgage or real estate brokers – members of these companies – initially combine both real estate services and mortgage brokerage services. 3) Mortgage brokers specializing in complex cases. For example, when a potential borrower can not document to verify your income. Each type of brokers in their own good. However, in my opinion, it is best to work with a mortgage bond broker realtor. And if that one person combines these two services, then this option is preferable for the client: after credit approval, by the same person now as a realtor as soon as possible to help find an apartment and check it out properly so that the client-borrower subsequently lost his apartment. Summary of the Friends to take mortgage loan to their advantage, the best solution would be to appeal to a professional mortgage broker, realtor. He will have a full range of services both of a mortgage loan and the selection and design of the apartments you in the property. He will also check the history of the apartment, to save you from the various contingencies that may lead to deprivation of property rights, etc.

Projects Of Cottages In The Ukraine

Olympic-park one of the best cottage communities class "comfort" in Ukraine. The village is located in the Makarov district of Kiev region, that is the road from the city center to the town will take about thirty minutes. The choice represented by twenty eight projects of cottages, where you may make changes to the client at the design stage. Special conditions of the mortgage loan. projects of cottages Ukraine will satisfy even the most discerning taste! Olimmpik Park One of the best cottage communities class "comfort" in Ukraine. The village is located in Zhytomyr direction, that is the road from the city center to the town will take about thirty minutes.

On the choice of the buyer is represented by 28 projects cottages in which to make changes according to the customer at the design stage. Special conditions of the mortgage loan. Olimmpik Park one of the best cottage communities class "comfort" in Ukraine. The village is located in Makarov district of Kiev region, that is the road from the city center to the town will take about thirty minutes. A choice of eight projects submitted to the twenty cottages, in which the possibility of changes in the client's request at the design stage. Special conditions of home purchase loans. Olimmpik Park one of the best cottage communities class "comfort" in Ukraine.

The village is located in Zhytomyr direction, that is the road from the city center to Town will take no longer than 30 minutes. The choice represented by 28 projects of cottages, where you may make changes to the client at the design stage. Special conditions of home purchase loans. Olympic-park one of the best cottage settlements of class "comfort" in Ukraine. The village is located in sec. Berezivka, 19 km from the KP in Zhitomir highway, then there is a road from the subway to the town of Zhytomyr take no more than 30 minutes. On the buyer's choice submitted to the twenty-eight projects cottages in which to make changes according to the customer at the design stage. Special conditions of home purchase loans.

Mortgage Securities

All models of mortgage lending in the Russian Federation of Russian mortgage lending where it is used two or three dozen different models. In various regions of Russia used the same strategy mortgages, as well as there are differences in approach to resolving many problems with housing. All of these factors leads to the formation psevdoipotechnyh programs. The American model of mortgage One of the most common and classical schemes mortgage is an American mortgages, which consists of 2 levels. The basis of this "American" model is the separation of the source of funds from creditor banks. In Russia such, this model has meaning of the federal scale.

For the successful future of the U.S. mortgage system to the adoption of the law "On Mortgage Securities." As well as the development of the American type of lending slows lack start-up capital in the regions, most of which are oriented not at the expense of "privateers", and the capital budget. German model Mortgages In the American model in Russia as quite successfully developed German model of the mortgage. It is based on a system of savings and loan funds. For all depositors opened an escrow account in which he for the lifetime of every month brings a fixed amount under Savka lower, than the market. Accumulated amount is half the cost of the purchased apartment. This period is called the "accumulation period", in his completion of the lender receives the remaining money to buy apartments under the percentage that well below the market.

Monthly Payments Calculation

Size Revenue should be confirmed by documents. This is an important feature of the mortgage, consumer credit is now possible to obtain, without providing information about the borrower's income – the maximum possible amount of the loan depends on family income, looks forward to receiving the loan, the calculation of the maximum possible amount is based on the condition that the monthly payments on a loan repayment and interest payments do not exceed 35% of the total family income of the borrower. If the borrower makes more than half of its own funds in payment of the price, monthly mortgage payments can reach 40% of the total income of family members of the borrower – the borrower for your account should insure their lives, disability and acquired property. Taken together, this will increase payments by 1% per annum of the balance of outstanding loans – the borrower should take care to design the right title to the acquired housing. In order to competently and without any tangible financial loss on the purchase housing mortgage credit is the 'Shining Path' to the new home for at least 7 stages.

Step One: sober assessment of their capabilities. Understand, I want to live like human beings, in a new apartment, but before obtaining a mortgage should be clearly identified: – the real value of the apartment that meets personal needs and wishes – accumulated up to this point means that can be used as a down payment. Most mortgage programs require that as a down payment was 'uplocheno' not less than 30% appraised value of the apartment.


What are the options of obtaining loan funds are available today, "small" and "average" companies: – Loans for current operations – investment loans – commercial mortgage – special forms of credit (leasing, factoring, letters of credit). Investment credits taken for new projects, with the aim of substantially capacity expansion or development of a new direction of the company. Current yield of the enterprise is not significant, but the investment project owner must invest at least 30% equity. Investment loans provided by banks for up to 10 years and that is particularly attractive to them may be granted a deferral of principal repayment. Loans to the current activities are taken to replenish the working capital or purchase of movable property (machinery and equipment).

Loans for current operations are provided in the traditional way: a line of credit or overdraft on current account. The maximum term of such loans is limited to three years. Entrepreneurs seeking to banks for such loans, it should be noted that the monthly loan payment should be be no more than half of the company's net profit. As security for the current loans may make a pledge and guarantee of third parties (both physical and legal). The pledge can be submitted: – movable and Real estate companies – goods in circulation and securities. In addition, as collateral may be a property of other businesses and individuals. The main problem of collateral at the moment is that it assessment of the bank. For most banks the coefficient estimates range from 0,4 to 0,8.