Economy in Spain

With an unemployment rate around 18%, more than double the EU average, in the debate in Spain about the need for labor reform. A proposal hundred economists, for a single contract indefinitely, now joined by seven experts, who argue that labor reform is not the priority. The last before the current crisis, that of 1993, unemployment also stood at around four million unemployed but the employed population then was only twelve million people, against nineteen million people today. The increase in foreign population in Spain, migrants who have come in the heat of the housing bubble, such situations occur, as in the highlights of the Aznar government, unemployment was around 10%, but with a population occupied than at present, between sixteen and seventeen million people.

This does not mean that high unemployment is a result of this immigrant population, but it has greatly increased due to the high weight in the Spanish economy low value added activities and very intensive labor, such as catering or construction (real estate booming, brick employed up to 13% of the population, while in other countries is about 5% or 6%, which is also much more consistent with what would be the size of the housing stock in Spain). Construction has destroyed 700,000 jobs in the last year, and this downturn has allowed the temporary employment in Spain fall by about 30% to 25% through non-renewals of contracts and temporary layoffs (even so, the temporary Spain is still about double the European average). In this situation, the group of one hundred economists among which is the current secretary of state for economics, Jose Manuel Campa, even when he signed the manifesto did not yet have this post-only advocates an indefinite contract, to end this dual labor market, with workers “Privileged”, the indefinite, and others with very few rights-storms.

Columbian Poets

The saga of Macondo allowed us to understand the condition of being in a tropical country with nationals and to recognize a tradition that until then had only dawned outside its borders but that stuck with some dignity thanks to works such as Maria de Jorge Isaacs, Joseph The Vortex Eustasio Rivera and Night of the “Bogota universal “Jose Asuncion Silva. However, despite the amnesia of so many generations, episodes such as the War of the Thousand Days, 9 April, violence liberal and conservative, the births of the guerrillas, paramilitary massacres in recent years, the phenomenon of drug trafficking and contract killings were part of the common imagination of the fathers of this new development or generation of poets.

But while these were episodes of the past of the country, was in the 1980s, a period in which these poets came to adolescence, which was completed on bleeding the country: the takeover of the Palace of Justice, the extermination of a left party and the rise of narco-marked for ever new generations of Colombia and, of course, poets. While the new poets were the children of the “disillusioned generation”, his skepticism grew older with the harsh reality that indelible passed before his eyes. A Colombian poets born in the 1970s, like their peers in other latitudes and hemispheres, accounted live in a world wide and outside, with a percentage of hungry and illiterate that exceeds all limits. The hieroglyph of the world saw the front and access codes to the intricacies of the crisis were more scarce every day.

Choosing the Best Window Frames

Window frames can be made of various materials, which are also combined. They can be wood, aluminum, plastic, steel or wrought and cast iron. The oldest material for windows is natural wood. The regenerative and house of very good material to be is therefore still exist today with a very high market share. This is the good thermal insulation and the aforementioned processing option to owe. A problem in the processing of wood for windows is the poor weather resistance. Although this use of modern coatings could be reduced, there is still an increased maintenance costs.

In combination with an aluminum can, however, realize this version without problems. For the defense works of aluminum on the outside of the window a good protection against weathering, while the original, warm feeling of wood remains in the interior. All-aluminum as a window is particularly common in public buildings and office complexes used. This results not only from the high durability of this material, but it also contributes to the functional, so sometimes wanted to cool atmosphere of this building forms. Even fully glazed facades have aluminum frames, but these are separated for better insulation and isolation in plastic. The other way inside the plastic window frame and sash with aluminum or steel reinforced, as plastic can exhibit high wear and tear effects. The finishing of wood and wood imitations can be observed frequently. Steel is often used only if the building does not represent claims on the insulation of noise or heat. In connection with thermal insulation, steel is extremely durable material still at high stress, such as in public or high traffic areas, the building material of choice.

Quality of House Building

What is the project file? Showing the initiative developed technological and economic feasibility to drastically reduce the environmental impact of buildings, improving comfort, livability and quality of life. How do you show? Housing built that achieves 97.4% reduction of CO2 emissions and 50% water consumption, which involved the know-how and practical commitment to sustainability than 40 companies and two universities internationally. What is the contribution of research group? treatment provides interior painting and color of the Sun-silicate mineral, along with the protection of wood with natural wood stains Livos. Decorative finishes, flame retardant, hygienic, anti-static and inhibitor of microorganisms without biocides, fungicides and other petroleum products capable of providing harmful or toxic substances to the applicator and in time the inhabitants of the house. The ecological profile throughout their life cycle (1 / 3 of the environmental impact of water-based paints) also involves a leap forward in improving the quality of life inside the home. Will we see results and build with these advantages? The prototype is located on the campus which will run for a year evaluating the data previously obtained in simulation software. The results will be available in real time on the Web LIMA is developed by a research group formed by private schools and universities of Catalonia and Germany with the participation of 40 companies located in Spain, Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Canada and Japan. LIMA is not a house, is a weapon to change the future and a shock feasible in times of crisis, able to give real impetus to the new generation of sustainable housing.

Sustainable Housing

Sustainable housing is a new proposal to build houses and various buildings, which mainly seeks to better use of natural resources, namely respect as far as possible the environment and the same way as is realized certain benefits for the building from the very nature, such as saving heating when the winter and air conditioning brother summer arrives, thanks to the conditions provided by the environment around the building, in other words can be said that eco-sustainable housing construction or bio-construction, thanks to the implementation of some technological advances in the architecture, resulting in the most of the environment. The implementation of sustainable housing, has been implemented more in the buildings for public use, with the lay-out of a construction which seek to maximize the natural components of there as of sustainable, since through certain conditions in such housing can save energy by allowing more light and generate a certain weather conditions indoors. The achievement of sustainable housing is largely due to environmental concerns, which found support in a variety of useful technological advances in architecture, leading to what is called the bio-climatic, with the bio-construction. So to achieve the establishment of sustainable housing, it is essential the previous study of soils and their characteristics, also the weather. With previous studies that are performed for the construction of sustainable housing, primarily seeks to make the same environment generate better conditions in sustainable housing, so the arrival of certain climatic seasons, the atmosphere inside the homes respond to this, so will not be as necessary to implement devices such as fans or air conditioners that perform a high consumption energy is added to this sustainable housing that also allow reuse of a resource as important as water, provide better lighting conditions in the implementation of certain instruments that help to channel and to reduce pollution emissions . As added to the significant benefits that mean sustainable housing for people and their homes, the green architecture and sensitive to the environment that is present in sustainable housing, manages to avoid strong shocks in nature, to find better environmental conditions from the same planning and construction, besides its main achievement is aimed at energy savings through reduced energy consumption. One of the important elements in sustainable housing is the presence of walls that collect energy from the source of the sun also heat panels to keep hot water and photovoltaic cells. Other technological features that help shape housing sustainable systems are passive solar energy collection and vents them from providing comfort..